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美國的銘箴

輯錄

 

  近年來,有的美國公民,向法院控告政府,違反憲法“第一修正條款”。他們作這種事,有的是無知,有的是無聊,更有的單純是要引人注意。宣稱學校中效忠的誓詞有:“在神庇佑之下”一語,其中的“神”字冒犯了他們,有國家支持宗教的嫌疑,應予取消。他們想把美國,弄成一個無宗教的國家,特別是不想讓後代有宗教信仰。
  其實,第一修正條款所說的,是人民的基本自由:前一段說:“國會不得制訂法律建立宗教,或阻止信仰宗教”;後半則說:“不得限制言論出版之自由,或人民和平聚集及向政府訴願之權利”。這些都是基本的自由,包括國家不得侵犯人民宗教的自由;據此而另作別的解釋,是斷章取義。誰都可以知道,如果武斷的說,這是“宗教和政治隔離的牆”,言論和出版,集會及訴願,豈不也都該在“隔離”之列?
  顯然的,世界上有人民的國家,都有宗教信仰;如果沒有宗教的,他們會把某種學說制訂成為類似“宗教”。
  事實上,以美國而論,宗教成為文化的一部分,簡直無法隔離。人不能洗除其歷史背景。

  在錢幣的背面,都有“IN GOD WE TRUST”(我們信靠神)的字樣。在“獨立宣言”的起首及結尾,都提到“神”;聯邦憲法在各代表簽署之前,也說明“在我們的主”年曆(in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty seven…”。聯邦及各州都有“銘箴”,分別以拉丁文,希臘文,法文,西班牙文,英文,夏威夷文,印地安Chinook部族語文寫成,有的且刻在州璽上;其中許多有“神”字,或間接表示神,有的引聖經語句,說明這國家與聖經和基督教信仰的關係之深。看以下的銘箴,可為明證。

Mottos & Maxims


美金一元鈔票背面的 The Great Seal

USA: Annuit coeptis(L)= He(God)has favored our undertaking
   祂賜福我們的事工
   Novus ordo seclorum(L)= A new order for the ages
   萬世的新秩序
   E pluribus unum(L)= Out of many one
   合眾為一

 


Alabama - Audemus jura nostra defendere(L)= We dare defend our rights
我們敢於保衛我們的權利


Alaska - North to the future
前途在北方


Arizona - Ditat Deus(L)= God enriches
神賜豐富


Arkansas - Regnat populus(L)= The people rule
人民統治


California - Eureka(Gk)= I have found it
找到了


Colorado - Nil sine numine(L)= Nothing without Providence
全賴神佑


Connecticut - Qui transtulit sustinet(L)= He who transplanted sustains
移植者必護理


Delaware - Liberty and independence
自由獨立


Florida - In God we trust
我們信靠神


Georgia - Wisdom, justice, and moderation
智慧,公義,中庸


Hawaii - Ua mau ke ea o ka aina i ka pono(Hi)= The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness
土地因公義延續


Idaho - Esto perpetua(L)= May she be everlasting
願她長存


Illinois - State sovereignty, national union
州有主權國須合一


Iowa - Our liberties we prize and our rights we will maintain
珍視自由保持權利


Indiana - The crossroads of America
美洲的十字路


Kansas - Ad astra per aspera; or, Per aspera ad astra(L)= To the stars through adversities
經過橫逆到達星空


Kentucky - United we stand, divided we fall
合則俱興分則各敗


Louisiana - Union, justice, and confidence
合一,公義,自信


Maine - Dirigo (L)= I direct; or, I lead
我引導


Maryland - crescit et multiplicamini(L)= Increase and multiply
增長繁多
Fatti maschii, parole femine(Italian)= manly deeds, womanly words
言語文雅行動勇壯


Massachusetts - Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem(L)= By the sword she seeks peace under liberty
用武力尋求自由和平


Michigan - Si quarries peninsulam amoenam, circumspice(L)= If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look around you.
你若找優美的半島,你身在其中


Minnesota - L'etoile du Nord(F)= The North star
北極星


Mississippi - Virtute et armis(L)= By valor and arms
靠勇力和武裝


Missouri - Salus populi suprema lex esto(L)= Let the good of the people be the supreme law
人民利益為最高法則


Montana - Ore y plata(Spanish)= Gold and silver
金和銀


Nebraska - Equality before the law
法律之前人人平等


Nevada - All for our country
一切為國家


New Hampshire - Live free or die
不自由毋寧死


New Jersey - Liberty and prosperity
自由發達


New Mexico - Crescit eundo = It grows as it goes
與時並進


New York - Excelsior = Ever higher
精益求精


North Carolina - Esse quam videri(L)= To be rather than to seem
求真求實


North Dakota - Liberty and union, now and forever, one and inseparable
自由合一永不分離


Ohio - With God all things are possible
在神凡事都能
Imperium in imperio(L)= An impire within an impire
國中之國


Oklahoma - Labor vincit omnia(L)= Work conquers all
勞力征服一切


Oregon - Alis volat propilis(L)= She flies with her own wings
她仗自己的羽翼飛翔


Pennsylvania - Virtue, liberty, and independence
道德,自由,獨立


Rhode Island - Hope
盼望


South Carolina - Dum spiro, spero(L)= While I breathe, I hope
我存活,我盼望
Animis opibusque parati(L)= Prepared in minds and resources
預備心思和資源


South Dakota - Under God the people rule
神佑民治


Tennessee - Agriculture and commerce
興農利商


Texas - Friendship
友誼


Utah - Industry
勤業


Vermont - Freedom and unity
自由聯合


Virginia - Sic simper tyrannis(L)= Thus always to tyrants
暴君常以為戒


Washington - Al-ki (Chinook Jargon) = By and by
過不多久


West Virginia - Montani simper liberi(L)= Mountaineers are always free
山人永遠自由


Wisconsin - Forward
前進


Wyoming - Cedant arma togae(L)= Let arms yield to the toga, i.e., Let the military yield power to civil
以文率武
Equal rights
平等人權


Puerto Rico - Ionnes est nomen eius(L)= John is his name
他的名字是約翰


D.C. - Justitia ominibus(L)= Justice for all
人人公平

 

美國國歌-

The Star Spangled Banner

By Francis Scott Key(1779-1843)
September 20, 1814

Oh, say can you see, by the dawn's early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming?
Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight,
O'er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there.
O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

On the shore, dimly seen through the mists of the deep,
Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
As it fitfully blows, now conceals, now discloses?
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
In full glory reflected now shines on the stream:
'Tis the star-spangled banner! O long may it wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

And where is that band who so vauntingly swore
That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion
A home and a country should leave us no more?
Their blood has wiped out their foul footstep's pollution.
No refuge could save the hireling and slave
From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave:
And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

Oh! thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
Between their loved homes and the war's desolation!
Blest with victory and peace, may the heaven-rescued land
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation.
Then conquer we must, for our cause it is just,
And this be our motto: "In God is our trust."
And the star-spangled banner forever shall wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

 

美國國旗-


原聯邦旗

南北戰爭的旗

現在的旗
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